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Reference Cultures of Species

The need for type specimens is clearly stated in the Botanical Code and rules of nomenclature. Such specimens for glomeromycotan species consist primarily of spores preserved in a liquid medium (lactophenol, formalin, azide) and mounted permanently on glass slides. These spores often change their appearance and internal structure as a result of degradation in the normal process of senescence after death or because of preservative-induced changes over time. Many type specimens also do not reflect morphology of healthy spores because they were collected from field soils and were either in poor condition or parasitized. We have found the types to be most useful when they are compared against healthy specimens obtained from a living culture. Schüßler and Walker (2010) have erected some ex-epitypes (cultures with provenance to type material) to link morphological and sequence data sets. We make use of reference cultures (listed below) because they may or may not be linked to type material but still provide a living standard for comparative analyses.

Golomus caledoniumSince all cultures of the 1200+ accessions in the collection are started with spores of the organism, species identity (named or unnamed) must be defined for taxonomic reasons as well as for record-keeping and database management. To accomplish this purpose, spores of each accession are compared to those of other putative species in the collection using the following protocol:

  1. Shared features with a type specimen in good structural condition.
  2. Close match with details of a published description or redescription.
  3. Verification in disputed or tentative cases with identifications made by authors of protologues or other taxonomists having experience with the species in question.
  4. An author of a prologue or collaborating with authors of a species.
  • One or more of these criteria have been used to ascertain the reference cultures now recognized in INVAM and listed in the table below. For reference culture that could not be linked to a classified species, then this accession was assigned a genus name (based on well-established morphological criteria) and a numerical code based on database record number as a temporary specific epithet. All pertinent accessions with the same suite of traits as those of the reference culture were grouped together. This grouping process occurred whether or not species were named.
  • REFERENCE CULTURES OF SPECIES IN THE COLLECTION

    Starred reference species are not available for distribution for various reasons. Some species in the collection are not listed here because not enough criteria are met at this time to assign names with confidence.

    ACAULOSPORA  
    * A. capsicula NC168 4
    A. cavernata FL736B 2, 3
    A. colombiana FL184 1, 2, 3
    A. contigua (ined.) WV109B 4
    A. delicata AZ661 1, 2
    * A. denticulata CL139 1, 2
    * A. excavata CU121 1
    A. foveata CR315 1, 2
    A. kentinensis TW111A 1, 2, 3
    A. koskei WV736 2, 3
    A. lacunosa WV613 4
    A. laevis AU211 1, 2
    A. longula CL372 2, 3
    A. mellea BR983 2, 3
    A. morrowiae CL55 2, 3
    * A. rehmii BR237 1, 2
    A. scrobiculata BR984 1, 2
    A. spinosa WV861 1, 2
    A. tuberculata VZ103E 1, 2, 3

     

    AMBISPORA  
    Am. leptoticha FL184 1, 2, 3
    Am. gerdemannii MT106 1, 2, 3

     

    ARCHAEOSPORA  
    Ar. trappei AU219 1, 2
    Ar. schenckii CL383 1, 2, 3

     

    CETRASPORA  
    C. pellucida FL966 1, 2, 3

     

    CLAROIDEOGLOMUS  
    C. candidum NC268A 3, 4
    C. claroideum SC186 1, 2
    C. etunicatum NE108A 1, 2
    C. fragilistratum DN988 1, 2
    C. lamellosum ON393 1, 2, 3
    C. luteum SA112 4

     

    DENTISCUTATA  
    D. nigra NC182 1, 2, 3
    D. erythropa MA453B 1, 2, 3
    D. heterogama IL203 1, 2, 3
    * D. rubra BR211 4

     

    DIVERSISPORA  
    D. eburnea AZ420A 1, 2
    * D. insculpta PL121 3
    D. globifera FL327B 2, 3
    D. spurca HA567 1, 2, 3
    D. tortuosa JA301B 1, 2
    D. epigaea IT104 1, 2, 3

     

    ENTROPHOSPORA  
    E. infrequens CA203 1, 2

     

    FUNNELIFORMIS  
    F. caledonius UK301 1, 2
    F. coronatus AU202 2, 3
    F. geosporus NE202 1, 2, 3
    F. monosporus IT102 1, 2
    F. mosseae UK115 1, 2
    F. verruculosus PL117 2, 3

     

    GIGASPORA  
    Gi. albida BR214 1, 2
    Gi candida BEG17 1
    Gi. decipiens AU102 2, 3
    Gi. gigantea VA105C 2, 3
    Gi. margarita WV205A 2, 3
    Gi. rosea FL105 2, 3

     

    GLOMUS  
    * G. clavisporum KS895 4
    G. microaggregatum AZ243 1, 2
    * G. pustulatum BR606A 1, 2

     

    PARAGLOMUS  
    P. brasilianum BR105 1, 2
    P. occultum IA702 1, 2
    P. mirificum (ined.) MD214 4

     

    RHIZOPHAGUS  
    R. aggregatus HO102 4
    R. clarus FL239 2, 3
    R. diaphanus WV579B 2, 3
    R. intraradices FL208 1, 2, 3
    R. manihotis FL879 1, 2
    R. sinuosus MD126 1, 2

     

    SCUTELLOSPORA  
    S. calospora AU212 1, 2, 3
    S. dipurpurascens WV930 4
    * S. cerradensis BR103 3, 4
    * S. scutata BR243 1, 2, 4

     

    SEPTOGLOMUS  
    S. constrictum KS890 1, 2
    S. deserticola CA113 2, 3
    S. viscosum MD215 1, 2

     

    RACOCETRA  
    R. castanea BEG1 1, 2, 3
    R. gregaria BR239 1, 2, 3
    R. coralloidea CA260 1, 2, 3
    R. fulgida VA103B 1, 2, 3
    R. persica MA461A 1, 2, 3
    R. reticulata CL756 2, 3
    R. verrucosa VA105B 1, 2, 3

    References

    Schüßler, A and C. Walker C. 2010. The Glomeromycota: a species list with new families. Electronic copy available online at http://www.amf-phylogeny.com.